Things about missing teeth and their restoration
Column:Oral Knowledge Time:2019-01-24

Tooth loss is very common in the elderly, some of which are extracted because of loose teeth caused by periodontitis, some of which are too serious to retain caries, and a few of them are extracted because of traumatic breakage. Some people think that the loss of teeth is not a big deal. They don't care about it when they pull it out. Others know that the lack of teeth needs dentures, but they don't know how to repair it. Next, we will introduce the adverse consequences of missing teeth and the commonly used restoration methods.

What are the adverse consequences of missing teeth

Damaged teeth

The main function of teeth is chewing. When individual teeth or some teeth are missing, the burden of chewing falls on other teeth, which will greatly increase the burden of the remaining teeth and increase their risk of disease. At the same time, because of the existence of vacancies, adjacent teeth also lose their constraints. If not repaired for a long time, the adjacent teeth on both sides will tilt and displace to the missing teeth. Corresponding to the jaw teeth, because of the lack of occlusal function, will continue to elongate, resulting in food impaction, secondary caries, periodontal disease and so on.


 

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Affecting face and pronunciation

Teeth can support facial muscles and play an important role in maintaining facial beauty, especially anterior teeth. Once multiple anterior teeth are missing, they can make people look ten years old. In addition, the loss of teeth can also lead to inarticulate pronunciation, commonly known as "speech leakage".


 

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Temporomandibular joint injury

At present, many studies have shown that the loss of teeth, especially the posterior teeth, can cause temporomandibular joint disorders, such as bilateral anterior ear pain, mouth opening difficulties, or joint bouncing. This is mainly because the masticatory function of the missing side decreases, and patients may form the habit of chewing only with the other side, resulting in unbalanced force on the bilateral temporomandibular joints, which is prone to arthropathy in the long run. In addition, when the number of missing teeth is large or the time of missing teeth is long, occlusal interference will occur because of the inclination and elongation of the remaining teeth, resulting in occlusal relationship disorder and also to the temple. Injury to the mandibular joint.


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Gastrointestinal disorder

After the loss of teeth, chewing function decreases and food goes directly into the gastrointestinal tract without adequate grinding, which will greatly increase the burden of the digestive system and affect the absorption of nutrients. In the long run, it may lead to digestive system diseases and thin and deformed patients.

What repair methods are there for missing teeth?

Knowing the harm of missing teeth, I believe you understand why missing teeth should be repaired as soon as possible. What are the commonly used methods at present? Generally, it can be divided into three categories: fixed denture, movable denture and implant.

Fixed denture

Fixed denture refers to the restoration of one or more missing teeth in dentition. Fixed denture is the restoration of one or more missing teeth in dentition. In the form of "bridging", the abutment or implant prepared on both sides of the missing teeth are connected with the binder to restore the anatomical shape and physiological function of the missing teeth. Because this kind of prosthesis can't be worn by the patients themselves, it is called fixed denture for short. Fixed dentures are made of metal, porcelain and all-ceramic materials. Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) and all-ceramic (PFM) have both aesthetic and functional restorative effects, and are used more clinically.


 

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The advantages of fixed dentures are high chewing efficiency, no need to remove and wear, more durable, comfortable, beautiful and almost no foreign body feeling after adaptation. However, it has certain requirements for the abutment of adjacent teeth, not obvious loosening or crown defect too much. If it is damaged, it is difficult to repair it. It needs to be removed, repaired or redone.

Removable denture

Movable dentures refer to removable dentures. They can be used in a wide range of applications, ranging from missing one tooth to multiple teeth or even missing whole teeth. Movable dentures can be divided into two categories, removable partial dentures and complete dentures.


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Movable dentures have many advantages, such as wide application range, simple fabrication, relatively cheap price, self-removable, easy to clean and repair. At the same time, it also has many shortcomings, such as large size, many parts, often foreign body feeling just used, need a certain period of adaptation, the length varies from person to person; chewing efficiency is poor, easy to loose off, use should avoid eating hard, sticky food. The service life is relatively short.

Dental implant

Implant is an increasingly popular method of restoration of missing teeth in recent years. It is a kind of prosthetic method that pure titanium screw (implant) is implanted into alveolar bone of edentulous area. After 1-3 months, when the implant and alveolar bone are close together, the denture is made on it.


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The advantages of dental implants are good retention, the recovery of masticatory force is over 90%, close to the true teeth. It can transmit the pressure generated by chewing activity to alveolar bone, which has a functional stimulation effect on alveolar bone, and can protect the alveolar bone structure and avoid its atrophy. Unlike fixed denture restoration, implants do not need to grind the tissues of healthy teeth before and after the missing area, so they do not damage the surrounding healthy teeth. It has a long service life and can be used for life if it is well maintained. The disadvantage is that there is a certain requirement for the bone mass of missing teeth, not necessarily every patient is suitable, the repair cycle is relatively long, and the cost is high.

Life span of denture

No matter the removable denture, fixed denture or implant, each denture has its own "life span", especially the removable denture. With the prolongation of the use time and the aggravation of wear and tear, the material aging changes the shape and color of the denture; the alveolar bone in the missing area will continue to absorb, resulting in poor retention stability and other problems. Therefore, it is necessary to cultivate the habit of regular visits to the doctor after denture installation to maintain the retention, support and stability of the denture and not cause damage to the remaining soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity. Movable dentures are replaced once every five to six years on average. Fixed and implanted dentures depend on the specific conditions.


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Although removable denture, fixed denture and implant have their own advantages, the effect of dental restoration is good. Everyone should repair the missing teeth as soon as possible. When they are repaired, they can choose according to their own conditions. The best way to repair the missing teeth is to fit themselves.